Monday, March 28, 2011

Self-Administered Test on Energy (50 items True or False)

Abe V Rotor

This test was given on Paaralang Bayan sa Himpapawid (People's School-on-Air). This serves as answer key.

Siargao Fall, Surigao. Mural painting by Anna
Rotor and AVR 2007. St Paul University, Surigao.
Hydroelectric power is still the most popular energy source for the
home. Ambuklao, Binga, Chico, Angat, Pantabangan, and Maria
Cristina are the country's leading gemnerators of electricity.

1. You need less energy to boil water on the lowland (sea level) than on the highland (mountaintop). False, at sea level water boils at 100ºC; 3,000m – 90ºC; 6,000m – 81ºC; 9,000m – 75ºC)

2. When water boils at sea level, and you want to increase the temperature, all you need to do is burn more fuel, and even prolong it. False. Water boils at 100ºC, and remains at this temperature, water will simply change from liquid to gaseous form.

3. The temperature of boiling water inside a pressure cooker can be raised higher than 100ºC. True, usually at 120ºC for typical pressure cookers.

4. It is cooler on the mountain top than on the lowland, because the air is thinner. Air absorbs and conserves heat, even if you are closer to the sun at higher elevation.

5. Half of the fossil fuels we use for heating, electricity, machines is lost (50%) True.

6. All over the world, the percent contribution of these main energy sources are as follows: oil and gas 35 %, coal 60%, nuclear 5%. False: oil and gas 60%, coal 35% nuclear 5%

7. Worldwide eighty (80) percent of energy used for cooking come from firewood. True.

8. Generally firewood smoke is harmless to health and thje environment, If fact it drives pest and other vermin, induces flowering and fruiting of fruit trees. True

9. The most popular local firewood comes from madre de cacao and ipil-ipil. True

10. Firewood farming can be integrated with the forestry program, in mixed tree farming, strip and contour farming, helps reduce erosion and siltation, supports. True

11. Energy is neither created nor destroyed.. True.

12. Forests, irrespective of their kind and location, increase O², absorb CO², create a mini-climate, attract cloud and increase rainfall. They provide food, energy, shelter and clothing, restores wildlife, ecological sanctuary, reduces smog (suspended layer of fog and smoke). True

13. Biofuel refers to energy derived from farm waste, oil from plants such as Jatropha, consuelda, castor bean, lumbang, bitaog. True

14. Gasohol or alcogas is a mixture of ethanol and kerosene. False. Gasoline and alcohol.

15. Car maintenance includes observing carless day, planned route, and car pool. True

16. There will be one billion cars in the world by 2018. There are some 600 million cars in the world today which consume 20 million barrels of oil a day. False, consumption is based on one billion cars.

17. Driving at 100 kph on NLEX (super highway) is more economical than driving at 80 kph. False, it's the opposite.

18. It takes 1000 people to travel on 125 cars, 10 buses, 1 train. False 500 only, on the average.

19. House plan and design should be environment friendly, low in energy consumption, and easily and economical maintenance. True

20. A single lightning bolt, if only it can be stored, is enough to light a community for days. True.

21. Practice recycling to reduce energy requirement – water, re-heat food, waste utilization (wood), scrap metal, used tires, plastics, metals (bauxite most efficient in recycled metal). True

22. Austerity in electric energy consumption is necessary. Philippines has the highest cost of electric energy cost, yet it has the lowest GDP per capita. False, exaggerated data. But practice energy conservation, such as fewer and more efficient light bulbs, limit laundry (ex. sun dry, bulk washing and ironing), forego using electricity in bath, pressurized water system)

23. Our major dams - Ambuklao, Binga, Pantabangan, Chico, Angat, La Mesa – are suffering of invariable degrees of erosion, siltation and pollution. True

23. The world continues to build new nuclear power plants, even if the US and Sweden have not built new ones. True. There are 500 nuclear plants all over the world – now there is a slowdown for new ones. France, Germany, Belgium and Japan will produce more electricity from nuclear reactors.

24. The world’s worst nuclear power plant accident (meltdown) happened in Cernobyl, Kiev. True.

25. Energy of falling water is also called gravitational energy. Hydroelectric plants make use of this principle. True.

26. SWIP means Small Water Impounding Project is self contained for small communities providing them electric power generation, irrigation, fisheries and forestry. True.

27. Energy efficiency in agriculture and industry is part of sustainable productivity. It reduces greenhouse effect. True

28. Cars, cars, cars. Here are examples of people to car ratios: 1.8 US; 2.9 Russia 24; Peru 52; China 1374. (2009) True

29. The ultimate end result when energy is transformed from one form to another is low level heat. True.

30. The old Dutch windmills are coming back in the form of wind power farms. (Remember the windmill Don Quijote fought in Miguel de Cervantes’ novel – Don Quijote?) There are only 20,000 wind turbine generators (WTGs) in the world, mostly in California. True

31. Ethanol comes from sugarcane, sugar beets and root crops (cassava). One objection to biofuels is the direct competition between food and fuel, thus affecting food supply and nutrition.

32. Home Biogas generators are most found in China and India. We have in the Philippine a commercial biogas models at the Madamba Maya Farms in Rizal.

33. These are the used of Solar energy: reflected light (mirror concentrator) to generate electricity, desalination for potable and irrigation water, direct drying, solar panels, solar battery/cell. True. (Sunraycer of GM crossed Australia on a desert route at an average speed of 24 miles per hour.)

34. Fire in the Earth means geothermal energy from hot rocks and volcanic vents. Water is pump to the ground circulates in the cracks, becomes hot up to 200 centigrade and comes through a borehole which then turns a turbine that generate electricity. True. Anglo-French link – the Old Red Sandstone – produces 76 ºcentigrade, hot enough to heat buildings. In the Philippines, hot springs in Los Baños and Tiwi in Albay are the most popuilar giothermal projects. True.

35. New sails for sea vessels are being developed – but this is not significant to reduce energy of sea vessels which would rather run on fuel. False. New sails can replace engine power.

36. Surging energy of the sea - waves, tides, heat content, salty water, ocean currents – are just dreams yet to come true as alternative energy sources. False. There are pioneer projects such as gully wave generator, wave power, OTEC Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion, CLAM – British wave pressure system, Japanese osmosis system at estuaries. .

37. Polysaccharides or complex sugars directly release their energy in the body. False. Must first undergo hydrolysis and respiration/oxidation.

38. Nuclear Powers are North Korea and Iran. While they stirred fear and criticism led by the US and Japan imposing sanction on North Korea, South Korea appears undisturbed by the issue of having a bomb at the other side of its fence.. True.

39. Walking saves on energy, in fact it is therapy and leisure when you combine and harmonize your body, mind and spirit with nature. True.

40. Energize, instead of exercise. It is an exercise that restores gait and adds strength, while it brings inner peace. The mind becomes sharper; sensitivity is honed. And just like what the Greeks believed to be the fountain of youth, it could be the missing key to “a healthy mind in a healthy body.” True.

41. Oil from plants lighted the homes of our ancestors. True
Other than the coconut which is the main source of oil in the country, there are plants growing in the wild that yield lamp oil, among them a large tree called palomaria or bitaog (Calophyllum inophyllum) whose large seed is a rich source of oil called domba or “laurel-nut” oil. The seed or kernel yields 70 to 75 percent oil, and is rich in resin (28.5 percent) making bitaog oil an excellent natural varnish. The resin however, is poisonous. Old folks also use bitaog bark for tanning because of its high tannin content (19.12 percent)

42. One source of oil is lumbang (Aleurites moluccana). Its seeds yield 62 percent lamp and industrial oil. Just pick its ripe berry and light it. It produces a bright bluish flame. False You are referring to hanga, a small tree whose mature berries directly burn with bluish flame. It is plentiful in the highlands, such as in Benguet. One can visit the collection of hanga trees at the DENR field station in Loakan, near the Baguio airport.

43. Among the alternative sources of oil which are being investigated in the light of spiraling oil price, are the following species of Family Euphorbiaceae, to which the rubber tree belongs.

Soro-soro (Euphorbia neriifolia),
Gatas-gatas (E. pilulifera),
Consuelda (E. tirucalli),
• Physic nut (Jatropha curcas),
• Castor-oil plant or tangantangan (Ricinus communis) True.

44. Practically the energy we use directly or indirectly came from the sun. True.

45. If you direct all the light of the stars and harness them collectively you will be able to amass tremendous energy. False. No one has succeeded.

46. The human body is a perfect machine in terms of energy conversation and utilization, than no human invention can compare. True.

47. There are now hydrogen powered car running on the streets – the promise to replace fossil fuels. False. Still on experimental stage.

48. Magnetic shield protects the earth from deleterious radiation from space. True. Magnetic lines run from south pole to north pole, creating beautiful aurora borealis and aurora austalis.

49. Living organisms do not use energy during dormancy – aestivation and hibernation. False. Energy consumption fall very low.

50. Hydrogen bomb works on the principle of fusion, while the atomic bomb works of the principle of fission. True.

Rating: 45-50 Excellent; 40-44 Very Good; 35-39 Good; 30-34 Fair; 25-29 Passing.

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