Thursday, May 8, 2014

Convergence 8: Proposed AgroEcological Program for the Ilocos Region

Dr Abe V Rotor  

Living with Nature - School on Blog
Paaralang Bayan sa Himpapawid (People's School-on-Air) with Ms Melly C Tenorio
738 DZRB AM, 8-9 evening class Monday to Friday

1. Coastal Greening
Coconut and orchard trees, with cover crops 
 Mainly coconut planting on multiple rows, quincunx, mixed with halophytic 
       (salt-loving and salt-resistant) trees
·     Mangroves (3 genera) along intertidal zone and estuary
·     Serves as windbreak, buffer against tidal wave; filters salty breeze and sand
            and dust storm
·     Source of food, feed, fuel, local industry
·     Stabilizes shifting sand dunes, establishes foothold for other plants 

2. Roadside and Highway Greening
Acacia, Gmelina, mahogany, other forest trees
·       Provides aesthetics and shade
·       Ripraps road shoulders
·       Serves as windbreak and natural sun visor
·       Extends life of infrastructure
·       Source of wood, fuel, food, feeds 

3. Backyard Green Revolution
Vegetables (leafy, root, fruit and seed vegetables)
        Direct source of fresh food
·       Integrates cleanliness, sanitation, recycling, savings, exercise, family unity, 
            and the like
·       Bahay Kubo model (all vegetables)
·       Herbal-ornamental-vegetable combination
·       Orchard Model
·       Homelot (semi commercial, combination of crops, animals and/or fish)

4. Riverbank Greening
Kamachile, aroma, mimosa, ipil-ipil (Trees with deep and spreading roots)
        Provides natural riprap, shade and natural fertilizer
·       Prevents cutbank erosion, traps sand, silt and clay, thus extends life of river
·       Improves biological life of river, increase catch, enhances biodiversity
·       Source of firewood, food and feeds

5. Fence Greening
Mainly orchard trees
        Serves as “borrowed landscape”, adds aesthetics to home and surroundings
·       Provides shade, creates favorable mini-climate for the home and community
·       Source of food, medicine, feeds, other materials
·       Serves as windbreak, noise buffer, improves air quality
·       Serves as local wildlife sanctuary

6. Mudflat Reclamation
Mangrove species (Rhizophora Ceriops, Brugiera, Avecinia)
  Mangrove arrests shifting mudflat, helps delta formation
· Mangrove forest stabilizes intertidal zone, serves as buffer against tidal wave 
      and tsunami 
· Improves water navigation
· Creates marine sanctuary 
· Source of timber, firewood and other materials
· Supplies valuable detritus (organic fertilizer), natural food of marine life

7. Watershed Rehabilitation
Mainly forest trees with orchard trees,
simulated tropical rainforest (multi-storey)
· Reforestation restores green cover that enhances the integrity of watershed
· Minimizes erosion and siltation, restores natural soil fertility 
· Protects waterfalls, springs, rivers and lakes, 
· Increases stored water supply (ground water and aquifers)
· Source of timber, firewood, other materials
· Creates/restores wildlife sanctuary, increases biodiversity
· Prevents forest and brush fire

8. Woodland Hedgerow

Two models of woodland hedgerows 
(Acknowledgement: Internet)
Mixed orchard and forest trees with shrubs (2- or 3-storey) 
· European model of hedge forest, broad strip of woodland/forest separating fields
· Serves as wildlife sanctuary
· Sanctuary of biological agents that control pest
· Conserves water, prevents erosion and siltation
· Increases organic matter supply, reduces oxidation of organic matter
· Source of firewood, timber, other materials
· Serves as recreation area, adds aesthetics
· Creates mini-climate, serves as buffer zone

Fruits with Economic Potential in the Ilocos Region

Of the 200 kinds of fruits in the Philippines, 40 to 50 species are grown to some extent for their edible fruits and other uses.The rest are still found in the wild, or if already domesticated are not given significant attention.

Convergence 8 encourages in the propagation/production of indigenous fruit trees. Evaluation of these species is based on these characteristics.
· Nutritional value
· Domestic and export potential
· Diversity of Uses
· Potentials for primary and secondary processing
· High yield and good income
· Potential for creating new employment
· Ecological significance
· Medicinal and industrial uses as well

Here is a list of potential fruits in the Ilocos Region. There are many others of minor importance.
Coconut Balimbing Kamias Mango Cashew Chico Duhat Cacao Guava Atis Guyabano Suha Nangka Rimas Kamansi Caramay Santol Siniguelas Tamarind Camuyao Tiessa Mabolo             Makopa Caimito Kamachile Bignay Sapote Anonang
Battocanag Tampoy Manzanitas Avocado Coffee Achuete Tea Betel nut Pomegranate

Firewood Farming (Green Energy)·For more than a third of the world’s population, the real energy crisis is a daily scramble to find wood to cook meals. In the Third World 90 percent of the people depend on firewood. 

· Firewood scarcity is most acute in arid and semi arid regions, but is now felt in logged over areas and growing urban centers. Price of firewood has increased as much as the price of fossil fuels.

· In the sixties and seventies the Philippines introduced giant ipil-ipil, but monocropping resulted in fatal insect infestation. There is a need of systematic management in the culture of wood crops.

· Here is a list of firewood crops known to be adapted in the Ilocos region. Many of these are also valuable for timber and construction materials.
Acacia (Samanea saman and Acacia auriculiformis)
Agoho (Casuarina equisitifolia)
Madre de cacao or kakawate (Gliricidia sepium)
Talisay (Terminalia catappa)
Katuray (Sesbania grandiflora)
Mangroves (Rhizophora, Brugiera, Avicennia)
Bamboo (Bambusa spp.)
Gmelina (G. arborea)
Alagao (Trema odorata)
Eucalyptus (E. globulus, E. grandis)
Bitaog (Callophyllum innophylum)
Kamachile (Pithecolobium dulce)
Golden shower (Cassia fistula)
Ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucacephala or L. glauca)
Aratiles (Muntingia calabura)
Duhat (Syzygium cumini)
Albizia or kariskis (A. lebbekoides)
Aroma or candaroma (Acacia farnesiana)
Firetree (Delonix regia)

There are many others that include kapok, mulberry, alokong, ilang-ilang, and lanute. Firewood also comes from shrubs like pandakaki or busbusilac, pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) and other plant residues (e.g. dried coconut palm, tobacco stalk). All over the world, there are 1,200 firewood species listed, with 700 given top ranking.

Greening with Malunggay and Kakawate through Stem Cuttings       
Malunggay is the most nutritious local vegetable (leaves and fruits)
Kakawate is the most versatile wood crop (renewable firewood, construction material for dwelling and fence)

· Easy to propagate through stem cuttings
· Same soil (well-drained) and climatic requirements (onset of the rainy season)
· Procedure is basically the same. 

Available POTs for Convergence 8
Packages of Technology and References
Hillyland Farming Systems in the Philippines
Farm systems and Soil Resources Institute, UPLB 1986

KABASAKA: A program to increase income of rainfed rice farmers, PCARRD, 1979

The Philippines Recommends: Corn, Mango, Pineapple,Grapes, Coffee, Cacao, Ginger, Mungo, Water Impounding, Agroforestry, Bamboo, Production of Fast Growing Hardwoods, Irrigation Management, PCARRD (1970-80)

Success Stories of Farmer-Managed Coconut-Based Farming Systems
(Vols. 1 & 2) PCARRD, 1991; Measuring the Economic Viability of Agricultural Technologies, PCARRD 1991; Technology Transfer for Sustainable Development; DOST-PCARRD-PCAMRD 1989

Firewood Crops – Shrub and Tree Species for Energy Production
National Academy of Sciences, Washington DC 1980

Promising Fruits of the Philippines – R.E. Carbonell (UPLB)

Technology! (Copra Dryer, Banana Rejects for Cattle, Multi-purpose Farm Pond, Ipil-ipil Meal, Coco Timber, Corn and Ipil-ipil Farming, Backyard Fattening of Cattle, Rice-fish Culture), PCARRD (1970-1990)

Extension Bulletin of Food and Fertilizer Technology Center ASPAC (100 volumes of varied topics) 1960 to 2000

Plants of the Philippines (1971) – UP Diliman; Useful Plants of the Philippines (3 volumes, original 1938)) by William H. Brown

Saemaul Undong (New Community Movement in South Korea) FFTC 1970
 Note: Convergence 8 Program was presented in a briefing with Congressman Salacnib Baterina,  Ist District of Ilocos Sur some years ago.  I am posting the outline of the proposed program after it was recently presented in a lecture in the academe.  It may also serve as reference for development planners. The author served as chief consultant on food and agriculture, Senate of the Philippines.   

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