Wednesday, October 5, 2016

Sustainability and Waste Management (Part 2)

Living to Non-living, and back
Organisms are born; they grow, reproduce, then die. Inorganic matter is transformed into organic matter, and back. Elements form compounds in the non-living world (nitrates, phosphates, sulfates, etc.), to organic compounds (amino acids to proteins; fatty acids to fats and oils, etc) in the body of living organisms.

Dr Abe V Rotor
 Living with Nature School on Blog
Paaralang Bayan sa Himpapawid (People's School-on-Air) with Ms Melly C Tenorio
738 DZRB AM Band, 8 to 9 evening class, Monday to Friday

Compost is the best soil conditioner. Mix compost with soil medium in equal amounts for potted ornamental and herbal plants.

1. Recycling in home and community gardening includes composting, raising of animals and fish, integrated with beautification, health and nutrition. 
2. Recycling leads to the development of many products. Fruits in season that otherwise go to waste are made into table wine. Typhoon or drought affected sugarcane make excellent natural vinegar and molasses. 

3. Recycling with the Beast of Burden.  The Carabao is the most efficient feed converter, a living garbage processor. Its digestive system can extract sufficient nutrients from roughage even during long dry spell.

4. Recycling through range poultry. Crossbred with our native chicken, these chicken thrive on palay and corn, forage, leftovers, ground shell, etc. They are more economical to produce, tastier and free of antibiotic residues, and growth hormones.

5. Recycling with Goats. Anything that grows in the field is food of goats, from weeds to crop residues. Goats are excellent gleaners, leaving no waste on the farm after harvest.

6. Recycling helps in controlling destructive organisms such as the mosquito, which is food of fish, spider and bat.

7. Recycling in home and community gardening includes composting, raising of animals and fish, integrated with beautification, health and nutrition.

8. Recycling wastes from wet markets Vegetable trimmings, and waste from fish and animals require efficient collection, segregation and processing into biogas and organic fertilizer. 

9. Recycling is building farm ponds at the basin of fields to store rain water and runoff water for summer use. It is also useful in duck raising and fish culture.

10. Recycling means maximized impounding of rain water and runoff water through efficient watershed management to insure all year round supply of clean water of lakes and ponds for domestic and farm use.

11. Recycling is building a multipurpose Small Water Impounding Project (SWIP) for recreation, irrigation, fishery, and power generation.

San Jose in Mabini, Bohol Swip

12. Don’t waste Nature’s Gifts - tap them instead. Examples: Lantana, natural pesticide; oregano, natural medicine; chichirica, cancer drug; pandan, spice-condiment; and eucalyptus, liniment and cold drops; bunga de China, toothpaste  

The Principle of Recycling
So what do we recycle? And how?

Recycling in nature through the action of microorganisms: bacteria, algae, protists (amoeba, diatoms), blue green algae

Recycling of fibrous materials with fungi. Other than roughage and fuel, rice hay is used as substrate for mushroom growing.  The spent materials decompose easily into organic fertilizer.  

Nature’s nutrient converters are simple life forms such as lichens, algae, mosses and ferns silently working on inert materials, converting them into nutrients for higher organisms.

We put back to Nature what we do not use. So that it will be used in the second generation, in the next season, in another process, and by other users. Recycling is a continuing process; like a circle (continuum). Recycling helps homeostasis, increases production, enhances sustainable productivity.   
Wild Sunflower, Tithonia diversifolia, growing in the wild.

Recycling is attained through different methods:  
         Biological – Trichoderma, a fungus, in composting
         Enzymatic – Wild sunflower in compost, urea in hay
         Mechanical – Shedding, decortication
         Fermentation – Silage, retting, biogas digester
         Burning – Rice hull ash
         Any combination of two or more of these methods

So what are the elements that are recycled?  Let’s take as example the naturally occurring elements in the human body, as a reference. 

 These are major nutrients removed from soil by the rice crop.  Here is a comparison between the amounts absorbed in the straw as compared to those present in the grain. (Grain versus straw, kg nutrient/MT)
         Nitrogen:     10.5 - 7.0
         Phosphorus: 4.6 –  2.3
         Potassium:   3.0 - 17.5
         Magnesium: 1.5 -  2.0
         Calcium:      0.5 -  3.5

Rice straw contains 85-90 percent of potassium (K) of the biomass.  Thus much greater amounts of K must be applied to maintain soil supply where straw is removed.

By recycling rice straw after harvest we compensate for the poor efficiency of the crop to use soil nutrients.  Generally we get little from the fertilizer we invested in our crop. Typical fertilizer efficiencies are as follows:
         30 to 60 % for N,
         10 to 35 % for P, and
         15 to 30% for K.

Recycling of rice by-products mainly straw and hull increases yield and reduces cost of production .  Before recycling anything, reduce potential waste through good quality control. Reduce post harvest loss in rice that runs to 40 % of the harvested palay.

“Learn recycling from Nature – 
the passing of seasons that govern the cycle of life.” AVR

(Continued to Part 3 )

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