Wednesday, December 28, 2016

Dr Jose P Rizal: Man for All Seasons and Humanity

"It is not what your country can do for you, but it is what you can do for your country."
- Dr Jose Rizal

Dedicated to our country's National Hero, born June 19, 1861, and whose martyrdom on December 30, 1896 ignited a revolution against Spain leading to Philippine Independence. 



This article serves as a reference guide to students taking the Rizal Course, a three-unit subject in college. 

Dr Abe V Rotor
Professor, Rizal Course, UST and SPUQC
Living with Nature School on Blog
Paaralang Bayan sa Himpapawid with Ms Melly C Tenorio
738 DZRB AM Band, 8-9 evening class, Monday to Friday

Artist's interpretation on Rizal on his way to execution at
Bagumbayan. Note lively gait and stride, and apparently jovial
conversation with the escorting military officer. It was reported
by an attending doctor that Rizal's pulse rate was normal even
as he faced the firing squad.

Artist Cabrera's study: head profile of Rizal

Rizal: boy and man






 

Rizal as a student in Europe; right, most popular portrait, in official documents and books.
Rizal, had he reached 90
Acknowledgment: Mr. Philip Cabrera, son of the artist; and National Historical Institute.

The following article about Dr Jose Rizal is widely circulated on the Internet in celebration of Rizal Day which is observed every 30th day of December, the day he was executed in Bagumbayan by Spanish authorities, 119 years ago. To preserve the originality of the report,I am presenting it the same way it is found on the Internet and as written by two sources of information, for which I express my indebtedness and gratitude. Rizal as the Father of Filipino Nationalism (Manila: Bureau of printing, 1941), pp.3-4.; and Rizal's Concept of World Brotherhood,  1958, pp.48-60. The intention of printing this article about Dr. Rizal, is to provide a fresh perspective about him and his teachings - and principally for the cause for which he gave his life - a cause which we would like to review in the light of present problems and challenges.
- Dr Abe V Rotor

TRIVIA: Complete name of Jose Rizal: José Protasio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda
The Philippine national hero, Jose Rizal, has his own views and concepts about Global Fellowship which is synonymous to "Internationalism", "Worldwide Brotherhood", "International Alliance", and "Global Fellowship of Humankind". The following concepts are taken from Rizal's own words, speeches, literature, and careful analysis of his personal history and works.

Factors that shaped Rizal
Among the factors that shaped Jose Rizal as a person:

1. Racial origin: Rizal descended from the Malay race and also genetically inherited the mixed Ilocano and Pangasinan bloodline of his mother. He also has Chinese and Spanish lineage.

2. Faith (religion): Christianity also shaped Rizal's way of thinking. He was born, baptized, and raised as a Roman Catholic.

3. His being a reader of books: He read many manuscripts, books, and other publications printed in various languages.

4. His being a linguist: His knowledge of different languages apart from his own. He can speak and understand 22 languages.

5. His voyages: He was able to befriend foreigners from the various nations that he was able to visit.

Rizal's ideas about "Brotherhood" (Fellowship)
These are Rizal's ideas about the subject of having a fellowship or brotherhood of humankind:

1. Education: The proper upbringing and education of children and daughter in order for them to prevent the same fate and suffering experienced by the uneducated and ignorant fellowmen under the rule of the Spaniards.

2. Faith or religion: The belief in only one God. The existence of different religions should not be the cause of misunderstandings. Instead, this existence of many religions should be used to attain unity and freedom. There should be deep respect to every individual's faith; the beliefs that one had become accustomed to and was brought up with since childhood.

3. Fellowman: It is important for one person to have a friend (fellow) and the establishment of an acquaintance with fellow human beings. (It is also important) to recognize the equality of rights of every fellow human being regardless of differences in beliefs and social status.

Rizal's efforts to promote a "Global Fellowship"

Rizal promoted global fellowship through the following:
a. Formation of organizations: Included here are known scholars and scientists recognized as the International Association of Filipinologists.

b. Friendship: In every journey, he was able to meet and befriend foreigners who sympathize with the experiences and events occuring in the Philippines.

c. Maintenance of communication: Before and during his exile at Dapitan, Rizal was able to keep in touch with his friends located in different parts of the world. He was also able to exchange opinions, writings and even specimens which he then studied and examined.

d. Joining organizations: Rizal believed in the goals of organizations that are related to the achievement of unity and freedom of humankind. He always had the time and opportunity to join into organizations.

Basis of "Worldwide Brotherhood" (Worldwide Fellowship)

These are the basis of the above ideas, which were then taken from Rizal's opinions found in his own writings and speeches which intend to establish unity, harmony, alliance and bonding among nations: The fundamental cause or reason for having the absence of human rights is eradicated through the establishment of unity.

One of Rizal's wishes is the presence of equal rights, justice, dignity, and peace. The basis for the unity of mankind is religion and the "Lord of Creations"; because a mutual alliance that yearns to provide a large scope of respect in human faith is needed, despite of our differences in race, education, and age. One of the negative effects of colonialism is racial discrimination. The presence of a worldwide alliance intends to eradicate any form of discrimination based on race, status in life, or religion.

Rizal wishes Peace to become an instrument that will stop the colonialism (colonization) of nations. This is also one of Rizal's concerns related to the "mutual understanding" expected from Spain but also from other countries. Similar to Rizal's protest against the public presentation (the use as exhibits) of the Igorots in Madrid in 1887 which, according to him, caused anger and misunderstanding from people who believed in the importance of one's race.

Hindrances towards the achievement of a "Worldwide Brotherhood"

However, Rizal also knew that there are hindrances in achieving such a worldwide fellowship: Change and harmony can be achieved through the presence of unity among fellowmen (which is) the belief in one's rights, dignity, human worth, and in the equality of rights between genders and among nations.

From one of the speeches of Rizal:

“The Philippines will remain one with Spain if the laws are observed and carried out (in the Philippines), if the Philippine civilization is "given life" (enlivened), and if human rights will be respected and will be provided without any tarnish and forms of deceitfulness. ”
Rizal's words revealed the hindrances against an aspired unity of humankind:

1. The absence of human rights.

2. Wrong beliefs in the implementation of agreements.

3. Taking advantage of other people.

4. Ignoring (not willing to hear) the wishes of the people.

5. Racial discrimination.

Excerpt from one of Rizal's letter to a friend:

“ If Spain does not wish to be a friend or brother to the Philippines, strongly the Philippines does not wish to be either. What is requested are kindness, the much-awaited justice, and not pity from Spain. If the conquering of a nation will result to its hardship, it is better to leave it and grant it its independence. ”

This letter presents Rizal's desire and anticipated friendship between Spain and the Philippines, but one which is based on equality of rights.



Translation:

"What? Does no Caesar, does no Achilles appear on your stage now,

Not an Andromache e'en, not an Orestes, my friend?"
"No! there is naught to be seen there but parsons, and syndics of commerce,
Secretaries perchance, ensigns, and majors of horse."
"But, my good friend, pray tell me, what can such people e'er meet with
That can be truly great? - what that is great can they do?"

- Friedrich Schiller, "Shakespeare's Ghost," translated by John Bowring


Translation:

TO MY COUNTRY

Recorded in the history of human suffering are cancers of such malignant character that even minor contact aggravates them, endangering overwhelming pain. How often, in the midst of modern civilizations have I wanted to bring you into the discussion, sometimes to recall these memories, sometimes to compare you to other countries, so often that your beloved image became to me like a social cancer.


Therefore, because I desire your good health, which is indeed all of ours, and because I seek better stewardship for you, I will do with you what the ancients did with their infirmed: they placed them on the steps of their temples so that each in his own way could invoke a divinity that might offer a cure.


With that in mind, I will try to reproduce your current condition faithfully, without prejudice; I will lift the veil hiding your ills, and sacrifice everything to truth, even my own pride, since, as your son, I, too, suffer your defects and shortcomings.~

NOTE: This article serves as a reference guide to students taking the Rizal Course, a 3-unit subject in college.
x x x
-----
Anecdotes about Rizal 
Acknowledgement: Internet

1. One day, intending to cross Laguna de Bay, the boy Rizal rode on a boat. While in the middle of the lake, he accidentally dropped one of his slippers into the rough waters. The slipper was immediately swept away by the swift strong currents .Do you know what he did? He intentionally dropped the other slipper into the water. When somebody asked why he did such a thing, he remarked, "A slipper would be useless without its mate".


2. It was Jose Rizal's Mother who told him about the story of the moth. One night, her mother noticed that Rizal was not paying anymore attention to what she is saying. As she was staring at Rizal, he then was staring at the moth flying around the lamp. She then told Rizal about the story related to it.


There was a Mother and son Moth flying around the light of a candle. The Mother moth told her son not to go near the light because that was a fire and it could kill him easily. The son agreed. But he thought to himself that his mother was selfish because she doesn't want him to experience the kind of warmth that the light had given her. Then the son moth flew nearer. Soon, the wind blew the light of the candle and it reached the wings of the son moth and he died.

Rizal's mother told him that if the son moth only listened to what his Mother said, then he wouldn't be killed by that fire.


Smallest Plaza for a Great Man

Dr Abe V Rotor
Living with Nature School on Blog
Paaralang Bayan sa Himpapawid (People's School-on-Air) with Ms Melly C Tenorio
738 DZRB AM Band, 8 to 9 evening class Monday to Friday
Jose Rizal monument towers over the “world’s
smallest plaza,” Guimaras Island, photos by AVR

                       This is one for the Book of Guinness,
     Smallest Plaza means big,
big to a remote tiny island,
     simple folks and toiling breed.  

It's for being remembered here at,
     the proof of greatness indeed;
more than marble shine and pylons high,
     the hero's life is well lived. ~ 

Rizal's Masterpiece NOLI ME TANGERE (Latin "Touch me not.") - a Review

In commemoration of our national hero's 120th Death Anniversary, December 30, 2016
Noli turned out to produce a far reaching consequence. It stirred up the Filipino's sense of national identity which consequently led to the Philippine Revolution which culminated in independence from Spain on June 12, 1898.

Dr Abe V Rotor
Professor, Rizal Course, UST, SPU-QC
Living with Nature - School on Blog (avrotor.blogspot.com)
Paaralang Bayan sa Himpapawid (People's School-on-Air) with Ms Melly C Tenorio
738 DZRB AM, [www.pbs.gov.ph] 8-9 evening class Monday to Friday


Students both in high school and college who are taking up the subject about Dr. Jose Rizal, national hero of the Philippines may find this outline as a handy reference. This may serve as a review material for those taking the forthcoming final examination on the subject which is divided into four series.

  • Review in brief
  • Synopsis of Noli Me Tangere
  • Characters in Noli
  • Living up with Rizal.
1. Rizal got the idea of writing a novel after reading Uncle Tom's Cabin, Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel on the abuse of black slaves in America.

2. Similarly Noli was planned to expose the abuses committed by Spanish friars and authorities on the natives, the Indios, of the Philippines.

3. He proposed the idea to his Filipino friends in Madrid in 1884 that they collaborate in writing a novel on the Philippines, but it was to no avail.

4. Ultimately Rizal decided to write the entire book himself. He was 26.

5. Rizal began writing Noli in Madrid, continued on in Paris, and finished it in Berlin.

6. The book was finished in December 1886, but Rizal was penniless and despaired of ever publishing it.

7. The novel might never have seen print if it were not for Maximo Viola. Viola lent Rizal P300 for 2,000 copies. The book came off the press on 29 March 1887, ahead of schedule.

8. Noli me tangere means in Latin "Touch me not." (John 20:13-17). The newly-risen Christ says to Mary Magdalene: "Touch me not; I am not yet ascended to my Father, but go to my brethren, and say unto them I ascend unto my Father and your Father, and to my God and your God."

9. French writer D. Blumenstihl noted that "Noli me tangere" is a medical term used by ophthalmologists for cancer of the eyelids. This presented the idea of the book's theme - "social cancer."

10. This is an excerpt from the book's dedication (The Social Cancer). "Recorded in the history of human sufferings is a cancer of so malignant a character that the least touch irritates it and awakens in it the sharpest pains. Thus, how many times, when in the midst of modern civilizations I have wished to call thee before me, now to accompany me in memories, now to compare thee with other countries, hath thy dear image presented itself showing a social cancer like to that other!"

11. The book advocated for direct representation to the Spanish government and larger role of the Philippines inside the Spaniard political affairs.

12. But Noli turned out to produce a far reaching consequence. It stirred up the Filipino's sense of national identity which consequently led to the Philippine Revolution which culminated in independence from Spain on June 12, 1898.

13. The novel was written in Spanish, the language of the educated at a time when Filipinos were segregated by diverse native languages and regional cultures.

14. The Noli has since been adapted in many art forms. A 180-minute film of the same name was produced in 1961. Two movies followed: Rizal in Dapitan (Albert Martinez), and the multi-awarded Jose Rizal, played by Cesar Montano.

 Sisa and her children Basilio and Crispin,
UP Theatre

15. Noli the Musical spearheaded by Ryan Cayabyab et al became a hit on the stage, screen, and TV (series). There are various adaptations of Noli - a comic book and several simplified versions for students and children.

16. Noli was recently published internationally by Penguin Australia and US. It has been translated in major languages that the mere mention of Noli rings a familiar tune to millions of people around the world. Textbooks designed for students were made by various publishers, and the text itself is oftentimes condensed or shortened to facilitate learning among students.

17. Noli me Tangere and its sequel, El Filibusterismo, are studied by Third Year and Fourth Year secondary school students in the Philippines as part of the curriculum. Rizal's Life and Works is required as a 3-unit subject in various courses in tertiary education.

18. In Rizal's time Noli and Fili were banned because of their portrayal of corruption and abuse by the country's Spanish government and clergy. The church and many consevative people did not favor the the reading of Noli and Fili, until a law was passed making the teaching of Rizal compulsory.

19. Copies of the two books were smuggled in nevertheless, and when Rizal returned to the Philippines after completing medical studies, he was arrested and exiled to Dapitan.

20. A character which has become a classic in the Philippines is "Maria Clara" who has become a personification of the ideal Filipino woman, loving and unwavering in her loyalty to her spouse.

21. Another classic character is the priest "Father Dámaso" which reflects, other than their blatant abuse of power, the covert fathering of illegitimate children by members of the Spanish clergy.

22.The novel created so much controversy. Rizal wrote, "My book made a lot of noise;  everywhere, I am asked about it. They wanted to anathematize me ['to excommunicate me'] because of it ... I am considered a German spy, an agent of Bismarck, they say I am a Protestant, a free mason, a sorcerer, a damned soul and evil. It is whispered that I want to draw plans, that I have a foreign passport and that I wander through the streets by night ..."
Rizal is executed by a firing squad at Bagumbayan, now Luneta Park, a re-enactment.

23. The Church exerted pressure on the State over Rizal's fate. Rizal was convicted for "inciting rebellion" based largely on his writings. Rizal was executed in Manila on December 30, 1896 at the age of thirty-five.

24. Rizal depiction of nationality by emphasizing the qualities of Filipinos: devotion of a Filipina and her influence to a man's life, the deep sense of gratitude, and the solid common sense of the Filipinos under the Spanish regime.

25. The book was instrumental in creating a unified Filipino national identity and consciousness, as many Filipinos previously identified with their respective regions to the advantage of the Spanish authorities. It lampooned, caricatured and exposed various elements in the colonial society.~ Rizal death anniversary Dec 30 2016

Synopsis of NOLI ME TANGERE-  By Dr Jose Rizal 

In more than a century since its appearance, José Rizal's Noli Me Tangere has become widely known as the great novel of the Philippines. A passionate love story set against the ugly political backdrop of repression, torture, and murder, "The Noli," as it is called in the Philippines, was the first major artistic manifestation of Asian resistance to European colonialism, and Rizal became a guiding conscience—and martyr—for the revolution that would subsequently rise up in the Spanish province. - Noli Me Tangere by José Rizal, Harold Augenbraum (Translator) Penguin Books


Dr Abe V Rotor
Former Professor, Rizal Course, UST, SPU-QC
Living with Nature - School on Blog (avrotor.blogspot.com)
Paaralang Bayan sa Himpapawid (People's School-on-Air) with Ms Melly C Tenorio
738 DZRB AM, [www.pbs.gov.ph] 8-9 evening class Monday to Friday


Having completed his studies in Europe, young Juan Crisostomo Ibarra comes back to the Philippines after a 7-year absence. In his honor, Captain Tiago throws a get-together party, which is attended by friars and other prominent figures. In an unfortunate incident, former curate Father Dámaso belittles and slanders Ibarra. But Ibarra brushes off the insult and takes no offense; he instead politely excuses himself and leaves the party because of an allegedly important task.

The day after the humbling party, Ibarra goes to see María Clara, his love interest, a beautiful daughter of Captain Tiago and an affluent resident of Binondo, Manila. Their long-standing love is clearly manifested in this meeting, and María Clara cannot help but reread the letters her sweetheart had written her before he went to Europe. Before Ibarra left for San Diego, Lieutenant Guevara, a guardia civil, reveals to him the incidents preceding the death of his father, Don Rafael Ibarra, a rich hacendero of the town.
Noli me tangere (Touch me not), biblical source of Rizal's  novel, one of the world's greatest novels is ranked with War and Peace by Leo Tolstoy, Le Miserables by Victor Hugo, The Count of Monte Cristo by Alexander Dumas,  Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes, among others. Noli me tangere, meaning "don't touch me" or "don't tread on me", is the Latin version of words spoken, according to John 20:17, by Jesus to Mary Magdalene when she recognized him after his resurrection.
According to the Lieutenant, Don Rafael was unjustly accused of being a heretic, in addition to being a filibuster—an allegation brought forth by Father Dámaso because of Don Rafael's non-participation in the Sacraments, such as Confession and Mass. Father Dámaso's animosity against Ibarra's father is aggravated by another incident when Don Rafael helped out on a fight between a tax collector and a student fighting, and the former's death was blamed on him, although it was not deliberate. Suddenly, all of those who thought ill of him surfaced with additional complaints. He was imprisoned, and just when the matter was almost settled, he got sick and died in jail. Still not content with what he had done, Father Dámaso arranged for Don Rafael's corpse to be dug up and transferred from the Catholic cemetery to the Chinese cemetery, because he thought it inappropriate to allow a heretic such as Don Rafael a Catholic burial ground. Unfortunately, it was raining and because of the bothersome weight of the cadaver, the men in charge of the burial decided to throw the corpse into the lake.

Revenge was not in Ibarra's plans; instead he carries through his father's plan of putting up a school, since he believes that education would pave the way to his country's progress (all over the novel the author refers to both Spain and the Philippines as two different countries which form part of a same nation or family, being Spain the mother and the Philippines the daughter). During the inauguration of the school, Ibarra would have been killed in a sabotage had Elías—a mysterious man who had warned Ibarra earlier of a plot to assassinate him—not saved him. Instead the hired killer met an unfortunate incident and died. The sequence of events proved to be too traumatic for María Clara who got seriously ill but was luckily cured by the medicine Ibarra sent her
After the inauguration, Ibarra hosts a luncheon during which Father Dámaso, uninvited and gate-crashing the luncheon, again insults him. Ibarra ignores the priest's insolence, but when the latter slanders the memory of his dead father, he is no longer able to restrain himself and lunges at Father Dámaso, prepared to stab the latter for his impudence. As a consequence, Dámaso excommunicates Ibarra. Father Dámaso takes this opportunity to persuade the already-hesitant father of María Clara to forbid his daughter from marrying Ibarra. The friar wishes María Clara to marry a Peninsular named Linares who just arrived from Spain.

With the help of the Captain-General, Ibarra's excommunication is nullified and the Archbishop decides to accept him as a member of the Church once again. But, as fate would have it, some incident of which Ibarra had known nothing about is blamed on him, and he is wrongly arrested and imprisoned. But the accusation against him is overruled because during the litigation that followed, nobody could testify that he was indeed involved. Unfortunately, his letter to María Clara somehow gets into the hands of the jury and is manipulated such that it then becomes evidence against him.

Meanwhile, in Captain Tiago's residence, a party is being held to announce the upcoming wedding of María Clara and Linares. Ibarra, with the help of Elías, takes this opportunity and escapes from prison. But before leaving, Ibarra talks to María Clara and accuses her of betraying him, thinking that she gave the letter he wrote her to the jury. María Clara explains to Ibarra that she will never conspire against him but that she was forced to surrender Ibarra's letter to her in exchange for the letters written by her mother even before she, María Clara, was born. The letters were from her mother, Pía Alba, to Father Dámaso alluding to their unborn child; and that she, María Clara, is therefore not the daughter of Captain Tiago, but of Father Dámaso.

Afterwards, Ibarra and Elías board a boat and flee the place. Elías instructs Ibarra to lie down and the former covers the latter with grass to conceal the latter's presence. As luck would have it, they are spotted by their enemies. Elías thinks he could outsmart them and jumps into the water. The guards rain shots on the person in the water, all the while not knowing that they are aiming at the wrong man.

María Clara, thinking that Ibarra has been killed in the shooting incident, is greatly overcome with grief. Robbed of hope and severely disillusioned, she asks Father Dámaso to confine her into a nunnery. Father Dámaso reluctantly agrees when María Clara threatens to take her own life. demanding, "the nunnery or death!" taken the shots. It is Christmas Eve when Ibarra wakes up in the forest, gravely wounded and barely alive. It is in this forest that Ibarra finds Basilio and his lifeless mother, Sisa.
-----------------------------
References: Light from the Old Arch, AVRotor; and Wikipedia

   

Musical versions of Noli on stage and screen.



Kaleidoscope in Nature

Painting and Poem by Dr Abe V Rotor

Kaleidoscope in Nature in acrylic (20" x 24") AVR 2015

A world of colors in splendor and grandeur ,
in magnificence and glory;
the mountains in summer, the trees in autumn;
the sky at sunset over the sea.

Undulating hills, meandering rivers,
flowing down through the mist;
the valley wakes up to the magic of sunrise,
   in living colors that never cease.

Coral reefs, counterpart of gardens on land,
 untouched this submarine park
in luxurious colors and hues in the day,
hauntingly glow in the dark.  

The rainbow grows in the sky with dreams,
romance in the air in colors divine
for a lovely pair bound by love and care,
with nature's beauty they enshrine. ~



Sunday, December 25, 2016

Quo vadis, Journalism? (Where is Journalism headed for?)

Editorial: Greater Lagro Gazette

Quo vadis, Journalism? 
(Where is Journalism headed for?) 

From the earliest Roman newsletter in 5th century BC to today's Social Media, journalism has indeed vastly expanded and radically evolved. 

In the Philippines the first newsletter was Tomas Pinpin's Successos Felices 1636, and the first regularly published newspaper was Del Superior Govierno (1811). Print journalism dominated media for centuries until radio and TV brought news and entertainment to the living room. Today computers and smartphones dominate media virtually at fingertip and mobile at that, involving a very wide profile of users interconnected locally and around the world. 

Millennials are often identified with their fondness of using cellphone or smartphone at any time, what with the many features of this palm-size gadget. They are wired all the time, says a sociologist. The cell phone connects practically all - libraries, shopping centers, universities, cities, public offices, homes,  irrespective of distance and time. And it is multiple linked with institutions and systems: e-mail, e-commerce, e-learning, etc. 

Social media catch the earliest news, send quick messages, and react openly, critique without reservation, in fact social media to the general public is open journalism.    

So what is journalism today? People asked.     

"There are set rules and standards of journalism embodied in the Code of Journalism which will remain unchanged," says Editor Feliciano U Galimba Jr, of the award winning community newspaper - The Greater Lagro Gazette.

Applying strictly these rules and standards, and mobilizing a staff of local talents, Editor Fil as he fondly called, succeeded in making this quarterly barangay publication a model in community journalism, albiet citations from leaders and readers. 

The Code of Ethics in Journalism is universal, summarized in four tenets.  These comprise the four pillars of journalism, and it is in defense of this sacred temple that journalists have lost their lives, many of them as martyrs. 

Seek Truth and Report It. Ethical journalism should be accurate and fair. Journalists should be honest and courageous in gathering, reporting and interpreting information.

Minimize Harm - Ethical journalism treats sources, subjects, colleagues and members of the public as human beings deserving of respect. Balance the public’s need for information against potential harm or discomfort. Pursuit of the news is not a license for arrogance or undue intrusiveness.


Act Independently - The highest and primary obligation of ethical journalism is to serve the public. Avoid conflicts of interest, real or perceived. Disclose unavoidable conflicts.

Be Accountable and Transparent - Ethical journalism means taking responsibility for one’s work and explaining one’s decisions to the public.
Role models in journalism, like in other professions, provide not only direction but inspiration in work and life as well. The late Teodoro "Doroy" Valencia is undoubtedly the father of journalism in the Philippines. His column Over a Cup of Coffee shaped the thinking of his readers and influenced the decisions of leaders in his time, and even to the present, which makes Ka Doroy is an institution. 

His philosophy in ingrained in his teaching to one who aspires to become a journalists. He must 
  • Be inquisitive
  • Be constant in his purpose
  • Be fair and balanced
  • Be genuinely interested in people
  • Seek the truth
  • Be resourceful
  • Have guts
  • Master his grammar
  • Know his medium
  • Read, read and read.
 Above all, he must be God-fearing, compassionate, and true to his country and fellowmen. And uphold journalism as a profession and institution. 

Another journalist of international fame is Joseph Pulitzer (photo) who initiated the pattern of modern newspaper. For him, newspaper is the ‘vehicle of truth’, and he used it to raise his concern against corruption, fraud, monopolies, gambling rings and ill practices by elected officials.

Joseph believed in the power of press and the intelligentsia involved in journalistic activities to bring a positive change to the world. 


The Pulitzer Award attests to his love and devotion to journalism. The award is equal to the Nobel Prize in the field of journalism. Our Carlos P Romulo received such award for his writing "I saw the Philippines fall. I saw the Philippine rise."  to date, the only Filipino who bestowed with this distinction. 
Our own Filipino propagandists for Philippine independence from Spain are no less models to the aspiring journalists. Jose Rizal wrote Noli and Fili; Graciano López Jaena, published La Solidaridad with Marcelo H. del Pilar as editor and co-publisher, and Antonio Luna as prolific writer. 

Taking a glimpse back in history, searching for role models in the present, while projecting the future of journalism is a most challenging situation for a any critic of what is journalism today. It is a complex crossroad indeed. 

For how can we connect the ramifications of media in the same manner like nerves of a ganglion?
  • Newspaper journalism
  • Campus journalism 
  • Magazine journalism
  • Citizen journalism (also known as "public", "participatory", "democratic", "guerrilla" or "street" journalism
  • Community journalism or civic journalism, 
  • Social Journalism is a separate concept denoting a digital publication. 
  • Online and digital journalism   
The challenge is addressed to us openly.  We are victims of an explosion of knowledge which has consequences of its own - information pollution. It has its undertone to values and to journalism.  It is up for us to devise a system through the same technology, of separating the grain from the chaff, so to speak.

It starts with community journalism, as basic unit, under the tutelage of true and dedicated journalists like Editor Fil Galimba et al. It must focus on the young, the users and followers of social media. Social media is a bridge to journalism, in fact it is the journalism in our postmodern age - if properly directed and applied. ~
----------------------------------------------- 
20 Deadliest Countries for Journalists
1.    Iraq: 178
2.    Syria: 107
3.    Philippines: 77
4.    Somalia: 62
5.    Algeria: 60
6.    Pakistan: 59
7.    Russia: 56
8.    Colombia: 47
9.    India: 40
10. Brazil: 39
11. Mexico: 37
12. Afghanistan: 31
13. Turkey: 25
14. Bangladesh: 20
15. Sri Lanka: 19
16. Bosnia: 19
17. Rwanda: 17
18. Tajikistan: 17
19. Sierra Leone: 16
20. Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territory: 16
Two thirds of the journalists killed in 2014 were in war zones, but this year was the exact opposite, with "two-thirds killed in countries 'at peace'", said RSF.
--------------------------------------------------
New media technology, such as social networking and media-sharing websites, in addition to the increasing prevalence of cellular telephones, have made citizen journalism more accessible to people worldwide. Due to the availability of technology, citizens often can report breaking news more quickly than traditional media reporters. Notable examples of citizen journalism reporting from major world events are, the 2010 Haiti earthquake, the Arab Spring, the Occupy Wall Street movement, the 2013 protests in Turkey, - Courtney C. Radsch
Fareed Zakaria