By Dr. Abe V Rotor
ASSIGNMENT in CA217 (3CA3 and 3CA5) UST . Please answer directly on a regular bond. If you answer an item FALSE, rectify it or cite why it is false.
This test is open to all our followers and viewers.
Energy is the second most important necessity of modern man. Like food, its demand is great and is growing everyday. The conventional source which is fossil fuel is getting scarce, and because it is difficult and expensive to mine the remaining deposits found in unlikely areas like offshores, the cost will continue to spiral. Ideally, there should be a replacement of the major supply from the Middle East. But this is not the case. Demand cannot be met by present supply. And the threat is exacerbated by the tension - Arab Spring - spreading in North Africa, the Middle East, and likely to other parts of the world.
There is at present a frantic search for alternative sources like solar, wind, wave, gas - and firewood which is still the most popular domestic fuel. Steam which was the prime mover of locomotives in the 19th century is back on the drawing board for more compact and efficient models. There's much hope in the revival of electric motor. Battery operated and hybrid cars are still very few but they are gaining acceptance quickly.
On the other hand - and ironically - atomic energy development has slowed down after the recent Fukoshima nuclear incident, and previous to this, similar nuclear meltdown cases in Chernobyl in Kiev and the Three-Mile Island in the US. Hydrogen fuel is yet to prove practical, so with Deuterium, and other experimental sources. It is expected that food and fuel will directly compete, such as the case of sugar being converted into ethanol fuel. So with cassava, coconut, corn and other cereals as substitute or additive of fuel. Now this is crucial because there are millions of people all over the world who are not getting enough food and nutrition.
How prepared are we to face a world where dependence of energy is rising everyday? Ask Aling Maria or Mang Juan. Ask a streetwise guy. Are you smarter that a fifth grader? A college freshman? How do you relate energy with Einstein's formula E=mc2? How do you explain ENERGY IS MATTER, and MATTER IS ENERGY? Why are the two the same thing?
Note: Answers will be posted in a week's time.
1. You need less energy to boil water on the lowland (sea level) than on the highland (mountaintop).
2. When water boils at sea level, and you want to increase the temperature, all you need to do is burn more fuel, and even prolong it.
3. The temperature of boiling water inside a pressure cooker can be raised above 100ºCelsius.
4. It is cooler on the mountain top than on the lowland, because the air is thinner.
5. One-half of the fossil fuels we use for heating, in generating electricity, and running our machines is actually lost; it’s really a waste of energy.
6. All over the world, the contribution of each of these main energy sources is as follows: oil and gas 35 %, coal 60%, nuclear 5%.
7. Worldwide, eighty (80) percent of energy used for cooking comes from firewood.
8. Generally firewood smoke is harmless to health and the environment. If fact smoke from firewood drives pest and other vermin, induces flowering and fruiting of fruit trees.
9. The most popular local firewood comes from madre de cacao (Gliricida sepium) and ipil-ipil (Leucaena glauca).
10. Firewood farming can be integrated into the forestry program, mixed tree farming, strip and contour farming. It helps reduce erosion and siltation.
11. SALT means Sloping Agricultural Land Technology, a program of the DA and DENR to protect our hillsides and uplands.
12. Forests, irrespective of its kind and location, increase supply of O², absorb CO² from the air, create a mini-climate, attract cloud and increase rainfall.
13. Biofuel refers to energy derived from farm wastes, oil from plants such as Jatropha, consuelda, castor bean, lumbang, bitaog, and the like.
14. Gasohol or alcogas is a mixture of ethanol and kerosene.
15. Proper car maintenance includes observing "carless day," planned route, and car pool.
16. There will be one billion cars in the world by 2018. There are some 600 million cars in the world today which consume 20 million barrels of oil a day.
17. Driving at a speed of 100 kph on NLEX is more economical than driving at 80 kph.
18. New sails for sea vessels are being developed – but this is not significant to reduce energy consumption of sea vessels which would rather run on fuel.
19. House plan and design should be environment friendly, low in energy consumption, and easily and economical maintenance.
20. Surging energy of the sea - waves, tides, differential heat and salt content, ocean currents – are just dreams as alternative energy sources.
21. Practice recycling not only to reduce waste, but energy consumption as well.
22. Austerity in electric energy consumption is necessary. The Philippines has the highest cost of electric energy cost, yet it has the lowest GDP per capita.
23. The world continues to build new nuclear power plants, even if the US and Sweden have not built new ones recently.
24. The world’s worse nuclear power plant accident (meltdown) happened in Chernobyl, Kiev, and Three-mile Island in the US.
25. Energy of falling water is also called gravitational energy. Hydroelectric plants make use of this principle.
26. SWIP means Small Water Impounding Project is self contained for small communities which provide electricity, recreation and irrigation.
27. Energy efficiency in agriculture and industry is crucial in attaining sustainable productivity.
28. Cars, cars, cars. Here are examples of people to car ratios: 1.8 US; 2.9 Russia 24; Peru 52; China 1374
29. Some 1 million cars are manufactured everyday, 80 percent are sold in developed countries.
30. The old Dutch windmills are coming back in the form of wind power farms. (Remember the windmill Don Quijote fought in Miguel de Cervantes’ novel – Don Quijote?)
31. Ethanol comes from sugarcane, sugar beets and root crops (cassava). One objection to biofuels is direct competition between food and fuel, thus affecting food supply and nutrition, particularly to poor countries.
32. Home biogas generators are mostly found in China and India. We have in the Philippine a commercial biogas model at the Madamba Maya Farms in Rizal.
33. These are some uses of solar energy: reflected light (mirror concentrator) to generate electricity, desalination for potable and irrigation water, direct drying, solar panels, solar battery/cell.
34. Among the alternative sources of oil which are being investigated in the light of spiraling oil price, are the following species of Family Euphorbiaceae, to which the rubber tree belongs.
• Soro-soro (Euphorbia neriifolia),
• Gatas-gatas (E. pilulifera),
• Consuelda (E. tirucalli),
• Physic nut (Jatropha curcas),
• Castor-oil plant or tangantangan (Ricinus communis)
35. The ultimate source of energy is the sun, either directly or indirectly.
36. Starlight (other than our sun, of course) can be harnessed as source of power.
37. We have succeeded in inventing the “Perpetual Machine,” a long dream of mankind.
38. The human body is a perfect machine in terms of energy conservation and utilization, which no human invention can compare.
39. There are now hydrogen powered car running on the streets – the promise to replace fossil fuels.
40. Magnetic shield protects the earth from deleterious radiation from space.
41. Living organisms do not use energy during dormancy – aestivation and hibernation.
42. Hydrogen bomb works on the principle of fusion, while the atomic bomb works on the principle of fission.
43. Polysaccharides or complex sugars directly release energy in the body.
44. Prisoners become emaciated when, due to prolonged and extreme lack of food, the body converts adipose and muscle tissues into energy.
45. The nemesis of moving parts that reduce fuel efficiency is friction.
46. Synergy means there is "more energy than the sum of its parts."
47. The ultimate end result when energy is transformed from one form to another is low level heat.
48. Energy is neither created nor destroyed.
49. A single lightning bolt, if only it can be stored, is enough to light a community for days.
50. Overall conclusion and recommendation in conserving energy can be summarized into
“Less is More”
BONUS (plus 50 points over your score): WHAT IS THE ULTIMATE SOURCE OF ENERGY IN THE UNIVERSE?